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Changes In Political,social, And Economic Policies In Africa After Independence
- Changes in Political, Ideological and Administrative System
By definition politics is the process of making a decision that applies to members of the group or community, it involves government affairs, ministerial, parliaments, parties, and constitution.
The term ideology is derived from the word idea or concept, so by definition ideology is the system of ideas which acts either to support or subvert accepted modes of thoughts and behaviors. Examples of ideological systems involve socialism, capitalism, and Afro- Marxist regimes.
The administration is the process of running a business or management or management of public affairs.
Most of the African countries attained their independence in the 1960s, before that they were under colonialism for over 6 decades. After independence African countries experienced political, economic and social challenges and most of these challenges were connected with the period of Colonial domination.
Factors that led to the changes in Ideological system
Changes made in Ideological systems after Independence
- African countries had weak economies characterized by the dependence on the sales of primary communities.
- African communities were still suffering from poverty so they did not enjoy their resources.
- Divide and rule policies used by Colonial powers encouraged differences among the ethnic communities, So African communities did not have national interests.
- There was unbalance system of trade in the world market which disfavors products from independent states.
- Regionalism, this was the situation whereby some regions are highly developed while others are not. This unequal distribution of national cake influenced the occurrence of war in many communities in Africa.
- Many African joined to the Non- Aligned Movement, these were the ideologies which did not ally with any main European ideologies such as capitalism and capitalism. They believed that the use of this different ideology will help to improve the economic situation in their countries.
- The rise of Spirit of Ujamaa policy and Humanism policy in Tanzania and Zambia respectively;
- The rise of Ujamaa
- is derived from Swahili word which means relative or companion, it can also be translated as Family hood. The nationalist leader of Tanzania J.K. Nyerere intended to build socialism as the extension of traditional communal values inherent in rural extended families. Nyerere emphasized that the new nation must be built upon the already existing tribal socialism which was marked by classlessness and equal distribution of benefits
- The rise of Humanism in Zambia
According to Keneth Kaunda Humanism is the combination of many ingredients such as African socialism, traditional Christianity, and existential humanism. Keneth Kaunda says it was his desire to create a humanistic society that had a national identity which emphasized the Importance of Man regardless of his/her tribal race and ethnic grouping.
Factors That Led to changes in the political systems after independence
Changes made in the political system after Independence
- Failure of Political parties to challenge the Government, The only organ which had the capability of defying the ruling government was a military circle. For example, this happened in Sudan, leading to the 1952 coup, where the political parties were weak in defying the ruling political system
- Most of the African leaders were corrupt, they were corrupt and dishonest to public funds, they used state wealth to set up beautiful mansions, living luxurious lives and many of the public funds, projects and enterprises were switched into the private pocket to serve personal interests.
- Lack of national unity, this was created by colonialist so it was not possible to establish national unity among the African states. And this situation occurred in different places such as Rwanda and Burundi, Uganda and Nigeria so African communities competed for a long time for controlling of the state’s resources.
- Colonialist minimized regional integration among the African countries at the Colonial epoch. For example construction of infrastructures such as railways networks, road systems, and telephone lines never connected the neighboring African states, so after independence It was very hard for various countries to communicate each other.
- Fake promises by Liberation leaders. African people were dissatisfied for they wished to share equally the wealth of the country left by colonialist but they were not able to reach their dreams instead the ruling class enjoyed and lived a luxurious life and the masses were left by chronic poverty.
Factors that led to changes in the administrative systems after independence.
- Formation of Organization of African Unity (OAU) and United Nations Organization (UNO), these organizations aimed at establishing good relations with friendly states and helping African countries to solve their own problems without influence from European countries.
- African countries to join Non- Aligned Movement in order to adopt neutrality in the global political relations.
- Creation of Anti-corruption squads such as Creation of Prevention of Corruption Bureau in Tanzania to spread anti-corrupt campaigns
- Development of good infrastructures to improve the roads and railways networks in African countries, for example, Tanzania built T.A.Z.A.R.A railways from Tanzania to Zambia with assistance from the Chinese government, there is a good tarmac road from Isaka (inland port) via Kigali- Rwanda to Burundi.
- Development economic projects, In order to eliminate poverty, African governments encouraged private sectors to form inside and outside Africa continent to provide employment and supplying loans with better conditions to the citizen
Changes Made in the administration system after Independence
- Racial discrimination, during colonial period there was a discrimination in the system of administration, Whites people got higher positions while other normal African got a lower position in the system of administration. So African people wanted to uphold African dignity in the system of administration.
- There were ineffective methods of changing leadership, there was the use of the constitution which made soon after independence, These constitutions were favored the ruling class and did not attend the interest of the majority African, so many African leaders declared themselves as a life leader so event the ballot paper could not change the leadership.
- The use of one party system, this system involves centralizing political authority over a small number of influential politicians. Kwame Nkuruma led the way in the establishment of single party system than other countries such as Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Uganda, and Kenya followed.
- The use of the Military rule, Also there are some countries in Africa came under Military rule soon after political independence. Military rule was caused by the reason that many African governments were autocratic and despotic and refused to allow citizens to have a voice in the governance so these influenced the overthrowing of the existed government and military takeover. Examples of such countries include Sudan where King Farouk was overthrown in 1952 by the armed force, the Sudanese government, DRC, and Uganda.
- The presidential system, in this system the candidate who garners the highest number of votes after election becomes the president, an example of a presidential system is the government of USA. Countries in Africa adopted presidential system includes Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Nigeria, and Ghana.
- The federal system of government, under this system there is the division of power between the federal government and each state government, the USA is one example of a federal government. Countries in Africa that retained a federal government are Nigeria and Sudan, in these countries each state has some level of autonomy.
Factors that led to changes in economic development policies and strategies
- Changes in Economic Development Policies and Strategies
Economic changes made after Independence
- There was a wide gap in economic development between rural and urban centers because colonial policies favored places where most of the Europeans lived (urban areas).
- Many African countries were still dependent on the former colonial masters economically especially in the area of trade.
- African lost their land to the white settlers during colonialism so new African government wanted to get justice in the land ownership.
- There are some countries African were not allowed to grow cash crops which were reserved for Europeans only.
- Infrastructures were well developed in European areas but not in African regions.
- African government built all-weather roads and providing land resources to all citizens.
- Growing of food and cash crops were emphasized as a way of earning foreign exchange and satisfying domestic requirements.
- Establishment of import-substitution industries in different African countries in order to promote industrialization.
- Development of different schemes to promote agriculture development, for example In Tanzania there was Villagization policy, land settlement scheme in Kenya especially in the former white settler farms.
Objectives of education in Africa after independence
- Changes in provision of education in Africa after independence
Education in Africa after Independence
- To provide education which promotes African cultural values.
- Provision of education which promotes national unity, self-reliance, and social justice.
- Provision of education which is relevant to the African needs.
- African countries wanted to eradicate racialism in the education sector.
Education by definition is the transferring of knowledge, skills, wisdom, and experiences from one generation to other generation. During colonial period there was formal colonial education which was provided to the African countries. The aim of this type of education was to increase the number of skilled labor to the colonial activities and reduction of opposition in African societies.
So after political independence African countries wanted education provided to Africa to influence national development. They expected education to tackle problems like poverty, unemployment, hunger, diseases, and underdevelopment in general.
Features of Education after Independence
Weaknesses of Education system after Independence
- Expansion and development of secondary and higher education
- In Tanzania Kiswahili was adopted as the language of instructions in primary schools.
- The curriculum was relevant to the children and interests of the African societies.
- Emphasize on adult education and university education.
- Many Africans made efforts to acquire academic education compared to the colonial period.
Strength of education in Africa after independence
- Inadequate resources to support the expansion of secondary education.
- Teachers had no experience in teaching vocational or practical courses such as Agriculture.
- Most of the educational materials were available in English and European languages.
- Many countries were unable to provide enough resources to support higher education.
- Shortage of African teaching staff especially science teachers.
- Lack of library materials and laboratory equipment.
4. Changes in Health Services after Independence
Features of Healthy services soon after independence
- Education in Africa reduced the dependency of African countries on expatriates.
- The rise of literacy rate in African countries.
- Lowering of infant mortality rates.
- African people participated in the expansion of education facilities for their children
- A number of universities were established in African countries.
Objectives made by African government to Healthy services
- There were good medical facilities to care for Europeans and civil servants.
- Few and poor facilities were used for ordinary citizens.
- Medical facilities existed in urban centers especially in capital city such as Dar es Salaam in Tanzania, Dakar in Senegal, and Nairobi in Kenya.
- Missionary hospitals were responsible for the provision of medical attention to Africans.
- Common diseases were Malaria, tuberculosis, cholera, typhoid, polio, and measles.
Features of Healthy services in Tanzania after Independence
- To improve the living standard of people.
- To remove racial discrimination in the provision of health services.
- To reduce the imbalance in the provision of health facilities between urban and rural areas.
- To expand modern health facilities for the citizens.
- To stop high infant mortality rate.
Weaknesses of Health Services
- Health services were provided by the government and private organization such as churches and international voluntary agencies.
- Establishment of Ujamaa villages improved delivery of health services
- Government provided health services free of charge until the 1980’s
- More funds and foreign aid were allocated to the provision of health services.
Strength of Healthy services
- Lack of enough well trained healthy personnel.
- High level of corruption which led to the sale of government-funded medicines.
- Lack of enough financial resources to provide health services to the whole country
- Failure to research on local traditional medicines so the government had to buy medicines from the other parts of the world.
5. Changes in the Provision of water services in Africa after Independent
Features of Provision of water services soon after Independent
- Expansion of health facilities to most countries through the construction of hospitals and other health facilities.
- Research centers have been established in different African countries.
- Many medical training institutions have been established.
- Infant mortality rate has reduced dramatically.
- Health facilities have been provided even in rural areas in a number of countries.
Objectives made to improve provision of Water services
- Clean and safe water was mainly available in urban centers
- African residential areas lacked clean water supply.
- European farms were irrigated while African continued to suffer from water
- The absence of good policies on national water provision.
Changes made to improve water services
- To improve clean and reliable water supplies to the citizen
- To uplift the standard of living of the people.
- To improve the more equitable distribution of infrastructure in the countries.
- To expand land for irrigation.
Challenges facing Provision of water services
- There was the establishment of programs for supplying water free of charge to the rural communities.
- Improvement of water infrastructures.
Achievements of Water services after Independence
- A small percentage of the population has access to clean water and good sanitation.
- There were high tariffs for the provision of water which limited poor people from accessing.
- There were a corruption and embezzlement of funds in the provision of water
- Lack of competent personnel to repair and install facilities to supply water to resident
- Drought caused by neglecting of preservation of forest and other wetlands
- Water infrastructures have been established in many countries
- There are some companies which provide clean bottled water to the citizen.
- There are greater efforts towards reforestation.
- Provision of education to people on important of boiling water to a citizen for avoiding water-transmitted diseases.
- Water treatment plants have been established.
(This post was last modified: 12-04-2017, 01:44 PM by MyElimu.)