SUSTAINABLE USE OF POWER AND ENERGY RESOURCES
Energy is the power required to carry out an activities while power is the ability to do something or provide an effective, therefore energy can produce power, power is then used to carry out an activities.
Major sources of power and energy
Sources of energy can be divided into two categories, renewable and non-renewable source of energy.
- Renewable sources of energy
These are the sources that do not get finished or exhausted, for example sun, waves, and tides, geothermal steam and wind.
- Nonrenewable sources of energy
These are the sources that can get finished that is they can be exhausted for example coal, potassium, natural gas and radiation minerals such as uranium and plutonium.
Major sources of energy
The sun is the source of all the other sources of energy, this is because all the other sources of energy in one way or another dependent on the sun for their existence. The sun is a collection of hot gases, it produces solar energy which is tapped in various ways of human and plants. Solar energy is used to produce chemicals, heat and electric energy.
- Waves and Tides
These are the strong movement of sea water, these movements are caused by the Earth’s rotation, gravitational pull of the moon as well as movements of water particles. Waves and tides can be tapped to produce mechanical power which is in turn used to generate electricity.
Differences in atmospheric pressure cause movement of the air, this moving air is usually referred to as wind. Wind energy can be converted into mechanical energy that may then in turn to be used for the production of electricity.
This referred to the water in rivers or in waterfalls, this falling water can produce hydro-power. This can be converted into mechanical energy which may also used to generate electricity.
This refers to the existing plants and animals life in the environment. Biomass produces several forms of power and energy, it may be tapped to produce heat energy, mechanical energy as well as light energy.
Coal is formed from the compression of vegetation made over a long period of time. Due to its being covered by layers of mud the vegetation materials did not decompose completely, so it turn into coal due to the pressure and the heat from the Earth’s crust. Coal is used to produce heat energy.
7. Uranium and Platonium
These two minerals are used to produce nuclear energy which is then used to produce nuclear power. They occur naturally in the Earth’s crust.
Importance and Uses of power and energy resources
- Industrial uses
- They are used in agricultural activities
- They are used in transportation
- They are used in mining activities
- They are sources of employment
- They are sources of foreign exchange
- They are sources of government revenue
- Improvement of transport and communication infrastructure.
- Promotion of trade and other industries.
Problems facing power and energy production
- Changing climatic condition
- Lack of capital
- Lack of varied energy resources in individual countries.
- Poor technology and lack of skilled personnel.
- Environmental pollution
- High prices.
Ways of Address the problem facing power and energy production
- Regular dredging (removal of silk), this should be done to ensure that the dam capacity is not reduced by the accumulation of silk.
- Developing countries should ensure they keep up with technological advancement.
- Research should be carried out in order to improve energy and power production.
- Establishment of colleges and universities and other high learning institutions to train professionals in energy and power.
Solar and Wind Power in USA
United States of America is the technological advanced country with a wealthy economy country. It is one of the developed country with great demand for power and energy to its industries and its large population.
Solar power account for a very small percentage of total energy production in the USA, This include places like Calfonia and Nevada.
Winds power is used more compared to solar power in the USA. Wind power is used to generate about 0.7% of the total electricity production in the USA country.
Wind power is used to run large forms industries as well as generally electricity that is fed into the national grid.
The wind power generation has been and It is still experiencing continuous growth and it is expected to generate about1% of the total electricity produced in the country by the end of the year 2008.
Importance of Solar and wind power in the USA
- Source of employment
- Industrial development
- Agricultural development
- Conservation of non-renewable energy resources
- Reduced environmental pollution
- Improved standard of living.
Problem facing solar and wind power energy in USA
- Harvesting of solar and wind power is highly dependent on prevailing weather conditions.
- People are still reluctant to change from the traditional of an energy source such as hydro power.
- The cost of equipment used in tapping solar and wind power on a large scale is quit high.
Solution to the Problem facing solar and wind power in USA
- Alternative source of energy have been used to supplement solar and wind power.
- Associations and government departments have been formed to inform and educate people about the benefits of solar and wind power.
- Government support, as well as partnership, have enabled the setting up of stations for wind and solar energy exploitation.
Hydro Electric Power and Biomass in Tanzania
Hydro Electric Power
Hydroelectric power contributes the largest percentage of electric generation in Tanzania.
The Tanzania Electric Supply Company (TANESCO) is the main producer of hydro- electric power in Tanzania.
It produce electric at several hydroelectricity projects. Projects include Nyumba ya Mungu and fall on Pangani River, lower Kihanja around the Kihanji and Mhalala waterfalls in the Udzungwa Mountains, Kidatu, Mtera, and Rufiji. These project have a total instilled capacity of generating 561 of electricity.
As a way to reduce dependent on petroleum and other non-renewable energy resource such as fuels, wood, small industries development organization (SIDO) introduce the use of use of Biogas in Tanzania.
Most of this biogas is produced for domestic use. There are over 700 biogas plants in Tanzania today.
Most of this are located in the rural areas, where raw materials such as cow lung are available.
Importance of HEP and Biogas Production in Tanzania
- Employment to many people
- It enable the growth and development of other Industries in Tanzania.
- It improved the standard of living of many people.
- It reduces environmental degradation.
Problem facing HEP and Biogas Production in Tanzania
- Unreliable climatic condition
- Lack of adequate capital
- Lack of skilled personnel.
- Reluctant by the People.
Solutions to the problems facing power production
- Frequent dredging of reservoirs to avoid siltation
- Development of other source of power to reduce HEP which is highly affected by the climate.
- Establishment of training institutions to provide skilled personnel.
- Liberalization of power generation might lead to greater availability of funds.
- Aggressive marketing by the government and other concerned organization which help to encourage people to adopt the production and use of biogas.
- To provide education on how to improve biogas.